The Content Type Hub
The Content Type Hub is available on premise, and online.
In SharePoint Server, you enable the feature on the Site Collection you wish to use as the hub.
You then enable it in Central Admin, on the Service Application Proxy for your Managed Metadata Service in the farm, pasting in the URL to the Site Collection you nominated.
Published Content Types can reach all Site Collections in every Web Application that consumes that Proxy. Even other Farms.
In SharePoint Online, it is already set up for you at /sites/contenttypehub, and extends to all the Site Collections in your tenancy.
Once you have made Site Columns and Content Types in your Content Type Hub, you have publication options on the Advanced menu of the Content Type.
You can Publish, Republish or Unpublish.
Changes you make are propagated by an hourly Timer Job.
When the Content Types land in the target Site Collections, they are marked Read Only to discourage editing by users.
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