Managed Properties can be mapped to many Crawled Properties.
They can be typed as text, integer, decimal, date, Boolean, float or binary.
Managed Properties can be marked as:
Searchable – to appear in the full text index, so they can be used in simple text searches.
Queryable – so it can be used to restrict search results.
Retrievable – so it can be shown in search results.
Allow multiple values – to handle the contents of multi-select columns as individual values.
Refinable – to allow the property to be used in as a SharePoint Refiner.
Sortable – to allow search results to be sorted by this property.
Safe for Anonymous – to tell SharePoint that this property contains no sensitive information.
Alias – to specify an alternative for unwieldly property names to use for this property when searching.
Token Normalization – that accented characters should be treated as non-accented.
Complete Matching – to exclude partial matches against this property.